Trade Unions Against Apartheid: NUJ

In August 1970, Mike Milotte, 20 year old journalist and seasoned activist – and future National Union of Journalists (NUJ) member –  boarded a plane bound for apartheid South Africa.

Concealing thousands of resistance leaflets inside a false-bottomed suitcase, Mike’s mission was to build and detonate non-lethal bucket bombs, propelling thousands of the smuggled leaflets across strategic commuter sites in Durban. Part of a secretive and coordinated plan to reinvigorate the liberation movement, Mike’s story alongside those of other volunteers known as the ‘London Recruits’ is documented in a new film which charts this largely unknown chapter of the liberation struggle.

Mike and John1.jpg

Mike Milotte (left) & John Rose

During the 1960s the apartheid regime used ever increasing force and brutality to repress the liberation movement. The African National Congress (ANC) was outlawed and their remaining networks had been forced underground. Nelson Mandela and other struggle leaders faced lifelong incarceration following the Liliesleaf arrests and subsequent trial in Rivonia in 1964. Leaders escaping imprisonment during the purge were driven into exile.

Unable to mount a significant offensive from inside the country, exiled ANC leader Oliver Tambo summoned young freedom fighter Ronnie Kasrils to recruit sympathetic international students, activists and trade unionists to the liberation cause.

Setting up a secret operations base above a shop in Golders Green, Ronnie enrolled at the London School of Economics (LSE) and began building a network of volunteers for the covert South African missions. The idea was that the recruits, masquerading as young holidaymakers, business trippers or honeymooning couples, would be deployed in two person teams to attempt a number of clandestine forays once inside South Africa. White and so assumed apartheid’s natural allies, the recruits exploited this ‘privilege’ to help rebuild the remnants of the movement and provoke a new wave of struggle.

Mike was among those enlisted from LSE having recently secured an undergraduate politics degree. Speaking of the political fervour that categorised the contemporary landscape in sixties Britain, Mike said “It was a time of unprecedented protest across Europe: against the Vietnam War, the Greek military coup, Ian Smith’s racist Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in Rhodesia, and apartheid in South Africa.

“I fully supported the anti apartheid struggle, so that was the basis for acceptance of the mission. But I’d also have to say that at the age of 20 being asked to participate in this was akin to being invited to join in a fabulous adventure with the added excitement of doing everything in a completely clandestine manner.”

Growing up in Northern Ireland to a family that bridged the sectarian divide, Mike was active in electoral politics from a young age having joined the youth wing of the Northern Ireland Labour Party at 15. Recalling his political lineage, Mike said “I come from a powerful family tradition of working class socialist politics, going back at least to my maternal grandfather, a trade union activist in Belfast and Glasgow.

Mike Milotte.jpg

“When I was young I was taken on CND demonstrations, especially those against Polaris at the Holy Loch and in Belfast in the 1970s I was involved in the anti internment and anti repression struggle, and in advocating a socialist, non-sectarian alternative.”

Accompanied to South Africa by fellow LSE graduate and activist John Rose, the pair undertook reconnaissance in Durban before assembling the materials for the ‘leaflet bombs’ that would mark the climax of their mission. Powered by gunpowder and a small explosive charge, the non-lethal bombs would detonate at strategic commuter sites propelling the smuggled ANC leaflets high into the air, stunning South Africa’s notorious secret police (BOSS) with the sudden reappearance of the liberation movement.

On the 13th August, action by teams of recruits took place in five different cities: Johannesburg, Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London.

The flyer read “The ANC says to Vorster and his gang: Your days are coming to an end… We will take back our country!” To compliment the propaganda sting, handmade speaker boxes inspired by activists in Athens following the Colonels’ coup in 1967 were planted at the scene. The speakers projected a rousing declaration – the ANC was alive and preparing to renew the struggle – followed by the jubilant sounds of freedom songs.

In Britain, the NUJ were quick to respond to the worsening situation for South Africa’s black population. The union disinvested in subsidiaries with South African connections seeking to tackle the cash links that fed apartheid, including £1million plus investments in the Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance.  The NUJ also galvanised the power of free speech that was denied to the majority black population by speaking out about the censorship and repression of journalists in South Africa. On one such occasion, the NUJ publicised the gag on ‘subversive press’ and the imprisonment of New Nation editor Zwelakhe Sisulu without trial under state of emergency regulations in December 1986.  Working consistently with the Anti-Apartheid Movement the NUJ sustained the movement with donations, developed fraternal relations with the South African Journalists’ union, joined boycotts, protests and passed numerous motions against South Africa’s apartheid policies.

Recalling the enduring lessons of the movement against apartheid, Mike said “As an Irish opponent of apartheid, my abiding memory is of the boycott of South African produce mounted by the women workers in Dunnes stores, the leading Irish supermarket.


Dunnes store workers strike

“This was a prolonged struggle that won the workers international recognition and praise by progressives everywhere. It set a powerful example to rank and file workers, showing that even where there was official reluctance to engage in struggle, determination at grass roots level could win out.”

In a world still dictated by racism and discrimination, London Recruits the film will tell the stories of those who risked their lives and liberty for their opposite number in South Africa, stories which still hold significance for activists and trade unionists today.

You can support London Recruits by donating to the project via the official website. Trade union awards include the solidarity pack and a special trade union screening of London Recruits in 2018 featuring a Q&A with crew and surviving London Recruits.

Keep up to date with the project on Twitter: @LondonRecruits and Facebook /LondonRecruits.



London Recruits receive SACP Special Recognition Award

Last month Ken Keable, editor of London Recruits: The Secret War Against Apartheid received the South African Communist Party (SACP) Special Recognition Award on behalf of 66 currently known London Recruits. A former recruit himself, Ken was joined at the ceremony by former ANC minister Ronnie Kasrils and fellow London Recruits Bob Newland and Ian Beddowes. Kasrils was sent to London in 1966 and charged with the task of coordinating the London Recruits missions.

Presented by the 14th Party Congress the award highlighted the ‘outstanding role’ played by the Recruits in the South African liberation struggle. The name ‘London Recruits’ has been given collectively to the internationalists who travelled to South Africa either alone or in pairs on undercover missions from 1967 onwards. Post Rivonia, with liberation leaders banished to Robben Island and the ANC brutally forced underground, these young women and men (the majority of whom were young workers living in London) sought to amplify the voice of the banned ANC via a series of agitational stunts.

Fifty years ago in August of 1967, the covert plan was set into motion in city centres across South Africa. In Durban, activist turned “underground postman” Danny Schechter infiltrated the South African postal system with letters from the liberation movement and deployed leaflet scattering mechanisms at places used primarily by black workers travelling home to the townships.


In Johannesburg, Sarah Griffith and Ted Parker (both students from the London School of Economics) breached high profile buildings to install banners and clockwork alarm devices. Once activated, the device’s razor blade arms severed the cord fastening, unfurling banners that read ‘ANC lives’ and ‘ANC fights’, and cascading thousands of resistance leaflets into the busy streets below.

Elsewhere in Johannesburg Daniel Ahern, a West Londoner and member of the Young Communist League (YCL) successfully positioned several of the timer-powered leaflet devices at key high-rise locations. Synchronised action is thought to have taken place on the same day in other South African cities.

Later missions saw Recruits assisting freedom fighters directly. In 1971, Katherine Levine (now Salahi) and companion Laurence Harris smuggled arms and ANC guerrillas down to the South African border in support of the ANC’s armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK). Others were charged with tasks that included organising safe houses, couriering letters and packages, and detonating non-lethal leaflet bombs (used in missions from November 1969 onwards). In 1970, Ken (on a second mission following his first to Johannesburg in April 1968) and fellow recruit Pete Smith deployed a bicycle in Durban, which had been customised with an amplifier and cassette tape. The device allowed 15 minutes get away time before the voice of activist, journalist and ANC member Robert Resha boomed out:

 “This is the African National Congress. This is the African National Congress. This is the voice of freedom”, followed by the choir of London exiles singing the ANC anthem: ‘Nkozi Sikelel’ iAfrika.’


Three recruits faced arrest, torture, solitary confinement and imprisonment. Tasked with delivering passbooks and money to comrades in Durban, Sean Hosey was captured by Security Police (SP) just seconds after delivering the package into hands of his contact. It was later discovered that Sean had walked straight into a trap. Sean served 13 months awaiting trial and then five years in prison. French citizen Marie-José Moumbaris alongside husband Alex Moumbaris, a Greek Australian, were arrested while helping MK fighters cross the border. Mounting political pressure from France forced the release of Marie-José who was pregnant at the time. Alex was sentenced to twelve years in jail but escaped after seven and a half years.

Recipients of the Special Recognition Award include Abdullah Öcalan, the imprisoned Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) leader, and Cuba’s Henry Reeve International Contingent of Doctors (specialising in Disasters and Serious Epidemics).

The SACP said, “The 14th party congress recognises the outstanding role played by these gallant fighters for our liberation struggle. The SACP and many South Africans will forever be indebted for their involvement and sacrifice in solidarity with the people of South Africa who were oppressed by the Apartheid regime.”

Kasrils added his voice to this declaring that, “Without a shadow of a doubt they played no small part in the ultimate success of the struggle that liberated South Africa from apartheid tyranny. They represent a very significant piece in the kaleidoscope of endeavour, by South Africa’s people in the first place, and the supportive international community, that led to the victory over apartheid.”

In accepting the award, Ken Keable said, “The ideals that motivated us in our youth are now more relevant than ever. We hope that our story will inspire people, especially young people, to fight for a better world and this wonderful award, this great honour, will help to achieve that.”

Ken’s acceptance speech, introduced by Ronnie, can be watched here.

Trade Unions Against Apartheid: University College Union (UCU)

At the height of the fervour for political and social change that shook sixties Britain, one of the most impressive solidarity movements of the twentieth century began to mobilise against South Africa’s apartheid regime. At its climax the movement encompassed trade unionists and the wider labour movement, churches, local councils, student and campaign groups. The broad alliance trickled down to almost every sector of society, igniting collective action united in one common cause, freedom for South Africans from white supremacist minority rule.

It is against this backdrop that young women and men from left wing groups of workers and students were recruited for clandestine missions to assist the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa. ‘I was there at the height of the sixties. Vietnam, UDI, Paris, CND, decolonisation, anti-apartheid, boycotts of Spain, Greece,’ notes former NATFHE and UCU member Mary Chamberlain, reflecting on her experiences.

‘We were part of a transnational movement for change, exciting and empowering, lived in the shadow of the Cold War and nuclear annihilation. It made us a generation of internationalists.’

Mary, then a recent politics graduate, was part of a generation that saw apartheid as one of the last vestiges of colonialism and imperialism. A member of the Communist Party, Mary was 23 when first approached by the ANC. Arriving in Cape Town on the SS Vaal in 1972 accompanied by her then husband, Carey Harrison, the pair assumed the role of an emigrating couple, their ‘life’s possessions’ carefully concealing subversive ANC literature in the false bottoms of 20 or so old tea chests. ‘At the time, I didn’t think twice about agreeing to do what we did by smuggling in 7000 pamphlets, and thought that my effort was a small and paltry affair given the far larger sacrifices that black South Africans were making every day,’ remarks Mary on her contribution. ‘Of course, I am immensely proud of what we did, but it was suppressed for so very long, it’s sometimes difficult to believe that I actually did that, or to find the words to process the memories.’

Reflective of the highly sensitive nature of the missions, the recruits remained silent for decades, unable to share their experiences. Unbeknown to Mary at the time, future UCU trade unionist Norman Lucas was working undercover for the ANC whilst officially employed as a photographer on the passenger liner that transported her to Cape Town. Noman, ex branch official for UCU predecessor NATFHE and bearer of collective AUT and UCU memberships that total 27 years, worked as an ANC courier on a ship dominated by white South African officers and passengers. Norman was able to conceal his activities behind the lens, subverting the system of white privilege to assist the liberation struggle. Reflecting on his role, Norman speaks passionately about the lessons of the anti-apartheid movement and the importance of collective action as a vehicle for social change.

‘London Recruits may give some optimism to the young that political activism and protest can be effective. The recruits stories show that things can change and individual and collective action can make a difference.’

John Rose, past member of NATFHE and UCU and a longstanding member of the International Socialists (later the Socialist Workers Party), has a legacy of solidarity work in movements home and abroad. During his employment as a sociology lecturer at Southwark College, John was a member of the strike committee during two major disputes in 1995 and 1997. ‘During the strike I helped convince local bus drivers at Waterloo bus garage and their union the TGWU, one of the forerunners to Unite, to support us,’ John recalls, highlighting the importance of a collective movement. ‘On one memorable occasion a delegation of drivers turned up to express their solidarity at one of our mass strikers’ meetings.’


Mary Chamberlain, Norman Lucas & John Rose

John was among the left-wing students at the London School of Economics (LSE), recruited by underground ANC agent Ronnie Kasrils in the late 1960s. A future minister in Mandela’s first government, Ronnie had registered at LSE with the task of recruiting sympathetic activists. The plan was formulated by ANC leader in exile Oliver Tambo and saw Ronnie oversee more than 40 missions against the regime from 1967. John was impressed by the radical euphoria at an institution where ‘students didn’t just talk, they acted’, and after entering into contact with Ronnie, eagerly accepted a mission to South Africa. John arrived in Johannesburg in November 1969 accompanied by fellow LSE student Mike Milotte. Equipped with ANC leaflets stashed in false bottom suitcases and the basic knowledge of explosive device assembly, John and Mike built and installed plastic buckets full of resistance leaflets at three train stations. Topped with ‘state of the art’ non interference devices – plastic snakes, spiders, ‘do not touch’ warning signs – the small explosive charge was set to detonate at rush hour, delivering the leaflets to outstretched hands as thousands of black workers made their way back to the townships on the outskirts of the city.

The recruits undertook clandestine intervention at a time when internal ANC resistance had been crushed. The impact of a device that hurled the words of a banned movement high into the air right under the noses of the secret police was manifold. Coordinated, covert operations such as these served as triumphs for the liberation struggle, sending shockwaves through the regime and boosting the morale of those struggling under apartheid.

The UCU has a rich history of intervention in response to the economic, social and political freedoms of disenfranchised global counterparts. In recent times, UCU solidarity with Palestinians has born fruit via numerous motions and frameworks and John, a lifelong campaigner and academic, speaks of the similarities between the two respective struggles. “Returning to South Africa to teach about Israel Palestine made me particularly aware of the comparisons between the earlier black struggle for liberation against the Apartheid state and the Palestinian struggle for liberation.’ John recalls. ‘In post Apartheid South Africa, full democratic rights exist for all the peoples living there. Similarly, in the land currently contested between Israel and Palestine, it should be possible to find a just and democratic solution for all the people living there, including of course those Palestinians who became refugees in the last century.”


Joy Leman, Katherine Salahi & George Bridges

In 1970, John referred his cousin Katherine Levine (now Katherine Salahi) to Ronnie. A future UCU member and member of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) from just 14 years old, Katherine flew to Lusaka in January 1971 with fellow recruit Laurence Harris. Posing as a honeymoon couple, for three months they smuggled weapons and ANC guerrillas down to the South African border in support of the ANC’s armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK). In Katherine’s account of her mission she emphasises the difficulty of maintaining her undercover presence and the masquerade of appearing complicit with a brutal system of racial discrimination and the individuals that sustained it. Remembering one encounter, Katherine recalls that ‘his assumption that we would obviously agree with his vile opinions served to provide me with a sharp daily reminder of the grossness of apartheid, and probably helped to firm my resolve to complete our mission in support of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK).’

A multitude of women and men signed up, idealists and internationalists from all walks of life eager to lend an extra pair of hands to keep the message of freedom burning bright. In 1973 Joy Leman, ATTI and NATFHE member, was tasked with the transportation, printing and distribution of ANC leaflets. Alongside fellow recruit John O’Malley, Joy garnered the raw materials inside South Africa – a second hand Gestetner duplicator, reams of paper, ink, stencils, latex gloves, envelopes and a portable typewriter – and established a printing press hidden from the regime within the walls of their hotel room.

Past NATFHE member Ted Parker, deployed ‘leaflet bombs’, propaganda banners in strategic city locations with one such banner dramatically unfurling from the very top of the City Treasurer’s Department in Johannesburg. As Ted recalls, ‘one of the most prominent buildings in town.’ It is important to note that none of the recruits wish to overstate their role in a struggle in which many gave their lives. But these stories offer a timely and inspiring reminder that we all have an ability to shape a better and more just world. George Bridges, past NATFHE member and the first recruiter located by Ronnie, used his position as YCL London district secretary to draft in fellow comrades to the operation. ‘It seemed like nothing when you saw the gallows ropes, the solitary confinement cells, the memorial to thousands of MK soldiers and the obscene activities of the apartheid regime,’ says George, presenting a common thread that binds together each of the recruits’ individual stories.

‘However on reflection I feel proud that our relatively small organisation of idealistic young people, none of whom refused to volunteer, played an important part in the downfall of apartheid. Our slogan was always ‘One Race; the Human Race.’

In our latest video featuring UCU General Secretary Sally Hunt, Sally highlights the anti-apartheid work of UCU’s predecessor unions and outlines the UCU’s support for London Recruits.

If you’d like to donate to London Recruits please see our website and donate page

Interview with former Equity member, activist & London Recruit Joy Leman


In January 1973, former Equity member Joy Leman touched down into Johannesburg, South Africa on a secret mission for the African National Congress (ANC). Posed as a young traveller wishing to enjoy a slice of the popular tourist destination, Joy was assumed a natural ally of apartheid. Unbeknown to airport security, ‘subversive’ anti-apartheid literature contained in a secret compartment of Joy’s sports bag would soon flow throughout South Africa’s postal system.

By the late 1960s the South African liberation movement faced a stalemate; leaders of the then banned ANC had been imprisoned, killed or forced into exile. In the shadow of law enforcement brutality at the demonstrations of Sharpeville and Langa, challenges to the apartheid system were severely suppressed and compounded by the impossibility of establishing underground freedom units in a police state.

It is in this context that, in a plan orchestrated by exiled ANC leader Oliver Tambo, international trade unionists and activists were recruited by young freedom fighter Ronnie Kasrils to undertake covert missions against the regime. The idea was that the recruits – white and therefore immune from suspicion – would employ various guerrilla tactics to fan the spirit of the liberation movement while the resistance regrouped.

From 1967, volunteers disguised as honeymooners, business trippers and emigrating couples couriered ANC literature in false bottomed suitcases, detonated non-lethal ‘leaflet bombs’ at strategic commuter sites, unfurled banners from the heights of the high-rise buildings, played rousing speeches out of handmade speaker boxes and undertook link building reconnaissance to communicate that the ANC was well and truly alive.

 “When there is a particular case of horrendous injustice like apartheid, if there is something that any individual can do to change that, you have to respond to that call,” says Joy. “It was vicious racism that was bureaucratised. It was like reading about slavery. It was all made official.”

Based in London at a time of intense grassroots political activism, Joy was engaged in various campaigns that spearheaded the period including CND in the late Sixties, Anti Nazi League marches in the 70s, protests against cuts to education, Vietnam, Miners Strike support and numerous Women’s Rights campaigns including contributions to Women’s Voice. Today, Joy remains an active member of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and continues to campaign for social justice. In 2014, responding to the rise of the right wing in France, Joy and husband Mike Healy set up the Anti Racist Association (‘Oui a la Diversite’), which they continue to co-run.

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“I don’t think you stop. It’s always there; the passion to want to do more, and there’s always something to be done, be it tackling racism or campaigning to improve housing. I don’t agree that age is a justification to stop fighting.”

Accompanied to South Africa by fellow activist John O’Malley, the pair feigned a marital relationship to minimise security interest whilst they carried out their mission. Their first task was to rent an apartment in a block in central Johannesburg from which they would conduct their activity. Then, using a hire car that allowed them to enter and exit their apartment via an underground car park avoiding a staffed lobby, Joy and John smuggled in the materials needed to build a makeshift printing press.

The remaining days before the postal drop were spent in their “leaflet factory,” working slowly to stop the reverberation of the ancient Gestetner duplicator from alerting the regime to their activities. Once complete, the letters were packed into an assortment of envelopes bound for destinations across South Africa. Their cover story was that Joy was a secretary posting business letters. Driving quickly from one postal point to the next, they feared of the obvious question – why so many postboxes?

“At the time, our action seemed such a small contribution and was somewhat unclear just how it might help with the struggle. We left and couldn’t really think about it, it was deliberately wiped from memory.

“I’ve been looking at my diaries from that period, and of course there is nothing. It is blank for that whole time.”

While apartheid still existed, none of the recruits knew that a vast network existed outside of their individual missions, remaining silent about their actions for fear of generating attention from South Africa’s notorious secret police BOSS. On invitation to an official London Recruits meet up in July 2012 chaired by politician and anti-apartheid stalwart Peter Hain, Joy discovered that a colleague and friend whom she worked with at the London College of Printing for 10 years had also been a recruit. Mary Chamberlain, now an author and academic, was recruited alongside then husband Carey Harrison in 1973 and deployed to Cape Town on the passenger ship SS Vaal. Posed as an emigrating couple, the pair couriered banned ANC literature in the false bottoms of old tea chests.

In Britain, Equity adopted sustained intervention against apartheid’s separatist policies, instructing members to decline performances to whites only audiences from 1956, passing sanctions that lead to a total ban on export of programmes to South Africa in 1976, campaigned for the release of political prisoners and joined key protests and boycotts including the enforcement of a total ban on transmission of members’ performances to South African audiences during the 1981 British royal wedding.

Joy joined Equity in 1958 as a young actress in Wales. She landed a number of roles in television dramas, radio shows and TV commercials including a part in an episode of BBC series Saturday Playhouse in the early 1960s.

Many of the London Recruits were activists recruited from the full spectrum of the trade union and labour movement. As such, we are appealing to rank and file trade unionists, branches and committee members to help us reach our funding target.

For more information on the project, or to find out how to secure an early Q&A screening of London Recruits with the recruits, see our website.

Watch Equity General Secretary Christine Payne reflect on Equity’s anti-apartheid work and Joy’s story in our latest video

Amplifying marginalised voices: Women, activism & solidarity

Last week I attended the final event of the season from Women on Docs, an all female collective celebrating the contribution of women in documentary filmmaking. The theme of the evening – “Finding your Voice” – was explored by six short films which asserted notions of self-expression and amplified female visibility in the world, before concluding with a compelling talk with panellists Eloise King (Executive-Producer Vice Media/ID), Becca Human (London-based Illustrator and Filmmaker), Ayo Akingbade (Filmmaker) and Abondance Matanda (Writer and Poet).

Being part of a full house of female players from across the spectrum of filmmaking, and occupying and claiming the ‘Second Home, Shoreditch’ as a platform for female expression, was inspirational. It is no secret that female voices, particularly voices of women of colour, are marginalised in mainstream culture; I was enamoured and motivated by personal stories of struggle and the accomplishments of filmmakers who carved out their own narratives in the film world, a space too often overcrowded by men. In the words of Abondance, an 18 year old Poet and Arts/Culture Writer from London, “I’m good at carving out spaces for myself… I’m unapologetic. If I have something to say, I’ll say it.”

Having worked on London Recruits for slightly over a year, the talk inspired me to speak about the stories of the female Recruits and highlight attempts by the media to erase or ‘quietly’ conceal their political activity. For example, an article in The Guardian (2012) ran the following strapline when featuring London Recruits: The Secret War Against Apartheid:

“A new book reveals how, in the late 1960s, just as South Africa’s hated regime thought it had crushed all resistance, a group of white men from Britain packed their false-bottomed suitcases and took the propaganda war to the enemy.”

While several female Recruits’ have reserved their right to privacy, many have published personal accounts in the book or spoken candidly, as panellists, about their experiences. Yet, the synopsis implies that these women did not exist. The article eventually acknowledges the women Recruits with a fleeting nod several paragraphs in; depicted as secondary to men, their essential role in the resistance movement underplayed. The author refers to “men and women”, women never come first. The treatment of women emblematises a microcosm of the disparity of gender representation in today’s society.

Mary Chamberlain, now Emeritus Professor of Caribbean History at Oxford Brookes University and author of titles such as Empire and Nation-Building in the Caribbean: Barbados, 1937-66, was just twenty-three when she was approached by the African National Congress (ANC) to undertake a clandestine mission in South Africa (1972). Tasked with transmitting information into the country as a means of countering apartheid rhetoric, Mary and her then-husband Carey Harrison boarded the SS Vaal to Cape Town in possession of several false-bottomed tea chests stuffed with “subversive literature.” This included 5,000 copies of The Story of Simon and Jane (a graphic novella about a domestic servant and a delivery boy whose marriage was torn apart by apartheid) and 2,000 copies of A History of the South African Communist Party.


In 1967, Sarah Griffith, a student at the London School of Economics (LSE), breached several high profile buildings in Johannesburg to secretly install rolled up banners and clockwork alarm devices on the visible rooftop locations. Once activated, the device’s razor blade arms severed the cord fastening, unfurling the flag of the banned ANC and cascading thousands of resistance leaflets into the hands of black workers travelling home to the townships.

Katherine Levine (now Katherine Salahi) became an active member of the Anti Apartheid Movement (AAM) at fourteen years old, achieving her first and “easiest victory” against the regime when she succeeded in persuading her school to boycott South African marmalade. In January 1971, Katherine and fellow recruit Laurence Harris flew to Lusaka. Posing as a honeymoon couple, for three months they smuggled weapons and ANC guerrillas down to the South African border in support of the ANC’s armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK).

In 1973, cofounder of Oui a la Diversite (Anti Racism Society) and lifelong activist Joy Leman posed as a tourist in order to smuggle anti-apartheid material into Johannesburg in a secret compartment of a sports bag. The material included a text in Xhosa and a series of addresses. Once settled inside a small hotel room, Joy constructed a clandestine printing press, creating thousands of anti-government leaflets and distributed them through the government’s own postal system.

White, and, therefore, assumed natural allies of apartheid, Mary, Sarah, Katherine, Joy and many other women Recruits including Marie-José Moumbaris, Deirdre Drury, Diana Ellis, Cathy Dolphin, Veronica Ford and June Stephen [1], subverted their privilege to pierce apartheid censorship and deliver messages of resistance and hope to South Africans suffering under the iniquitous regime. The message, that the banned ANC was alive, that struggle’s flame continued to burn, thundered across South African cities at a time when ruthless state repression had narrowed the possibility of internal opposition.

By recalling their stories, I do not wish to underplay the political dissent of South African women. Their daily sacrifices for liberation from apartheid are incomparable. However, via the Recruits’ stories I intend to illustrate that as women it is our duty, now more than ever, to remember and support our actions, to cultivate platforms that enable and amplify marginalised voices, to stand in solidarity with one another against all forms of oppression, to collectively bring about real democratic, representative change to the futures of every woman, everywhere.

Globally, racism and sexism are ubiquitous; America’s president-elect Donald Trump stands as a malignant symbol of both. However, by exercising strategies of resistance, collectives like Women On DocsGirls in Filmgal-demSisters Uncut and many many more, are challenging gendered and racial exclusions, one thought-provoking article, film, solidarity event and protest at a time.

When London Recruits is released late 2017, I hope that our work inspires, amplifies voices that need to be heard and engenders a more inclusive dialogue.

Lauren (Production Assistant, London Recruits)

[1] I hope to feature more stories of women Recruits and the women of the liberation movement on this blog in the coming months!

Launch of campaign to trace witnesses to ANC leaflet bombs

We have launched an URGENT appeal ‘I Saw It to locate South African eyewitnesses to the activities undertaken in South Africa by the London Recruits (1967-73).

In a plan orchestrated by exiled freedom fighter Ronnie Kasrils (who was working undercover in London), the Recruits’ activities included planting non-lethal bucket bombs that propelled thousands of resistance leaflets into the skies of Johannesburg, Cape Town, East London, Durban and Port Elizabeth, playing pre-recorded street broadcasts from exiled leaders, and dropping large ANC banners from Landmark buildings that read THE ANC LIVES.’

A city-by-city timeline of incidents can be found here.

On behalf of the ANC, the recruits sought to pierce apartheid censorship by delivering information and messages of resistance into the heart of South Africa.

The Recruits’ activities made national headlines in numerous newspapers including the Cape Argus and The World.


Did you witness the ANC leaflet bombs or come into contact with the London Recruits? Do you know someone who did? Please get in touch with ANY information or leads.

London Recruits Director Gordon Main says ‘To find South African eyewitnesses will be to find the missing voice in this great story. We are sure that you are out there and we really want to hear from you, so our nationwide appeal starts today. If you can help, please do get in touch.’

Follow I Saw It on Facebook & Twitter.

SA OFFICE: | 0712530876


UPDATE: Since publishing this article, we have had coverage in several news outlets including The Citizen and the Cape Argus. Yesterday (21/11/16), Director Gordon Main and freedom fighter Ronnie Kasrils discussed our urgent eyewitness appeal live with Joanne Joseph on eNCA.

Read articles below.

ANC letter bombing story of ‘courage’  – Cape Argus.

The whites who bombed the apartheid government – The Citizen.

ANC leaflet bomb witnesses asked to tell story  Cape Argus.

Film highlights drama behind pamphlet bombs – Bloemfontein Courant

Have you seen this poster before? – Daily Voice

Joanne Joseph, Gordon Main & Ronnie Kasrils on eNCA – Photo Credit @SixoGcilishe.


John O’Malley & Joy Leman – Trade unionists undertake clandestine mission in struggle against apartheid South Africa.

On the 19th January 1973, John O’Malley, a member of Unison predecessor NALGO, alongside fellow activist Joy Leman, touched down into Johannesburg airport South Africa. Posing as two young travellers with dreams to emigrate to a foreign haven in the midst of a tourist and economic boom, John and Joy were assumed South Africa’s natural allies. Passing through passport control with a welcome determined by the colour of their skin, the pair exploited this ‘privilege’ and entered the country in possession of subversive literature in a secret compartment of a sports bag. Their task? To post letters to counter the lies of Vorster’s apartheid regime with the voice of the banned African National Congress (ANC), a reminder to those suffering under the tyranny of apartheid that liberation was coming.

“When I was originally approached for the mission, the idea was that it would be less intrusive if we were a couple,” remarks John on the circumstances of his recruitment. Part of a plan orchestrated by exiled leader Oliver Tambo and young freedom fighter Ronnie Kasrils (who later was to become a minister in Mandela’s first government) pairs of recruits disguised as business-trippers, emigrating couples and holidaymakers undertook covert missions for the ANC in South Africa. The recruits detonated leaflet bombs, rigged banners to high-rise buildings, amplified voice recordings from the ANC resistance through handmade speaker boxes and completed reconnaissance to help reestablish liberation cells on the ground.

Reflective of the danger of maintaining operations that challenged the legitimacy of apartheid, John and Joy made no direct contact with Ronnie.

“The organisation was completely clandestine. I only had contact with one person and I recruited Joy who only met our recruiter once.  I did not know about Ronnie until 40 years later and had not heard of him at the time,” says John. “I think this is a measure of how serious the situation was in 1973.”

In the climate of apartheid South Africa post Sharpeville and Langa, where unimaginable brutality had been unleashed on demonstrators by police and Rivonia where Mandela and other leaders of the struggle were given life sentences, the internal liberation movement hung by a thread. Remaining networks were forced underground by the regime’s security apparatus.

Then a 33-year-old Londoner and married with two children under the age of five, John was well acquainted with the political fervor that characterised the early 70s. An activist for a number of unions throughout his working life including the National and Local Government Officers union (NALGO), the National Union of Teachers (NUT) and the Transport and General Workers union (T&G), John was involved with several high profile campaigns. “In the summer of 1962 I joined the Campaign Caravan Workshop, a CND organisation, who organised a countrywide tour of activities in local communities with a core group who would canvass, leaflet markets and hold public meetings each day being accommodated with local CND supporters,” recounts John on his political activism. During his membership of NALGO, in 1971 he was appointed director of one of the twelve community development projects sponsored by the Home Office for London boroughs to tackle poverty.

Masquerading as tourists, John and Joy garnered the raw materials to manually re-print the text they had smuggled including “reams of paper, ink, stencils, latex gloves, assorted packets of envelopes and a portable typewriter.” Safely behind the thin walls of their apartment they began to replicate the materials in Xhosa and Zulu, working slowly to quell the loud reverberations of the ancient Gestetner duplicator and typewriter.

Key to all of the recruits’ missions was to remain as unobtrusive as possible. Blow their cover and state prison and torture would be sure to follow. As such, John’s memories of South Africa were influenced by the need to lay low as to not arouse attention from BOSS, the notorious South African Secret Police. “Our trip to South Africa was on the basis of in-out-and-avoid-being-noticed so I cannot say that I was able to satisfy any curiosity about the apartheid system,” says John. “Obviously the physical divisions in the streets were noticeable and the slave culture of the daily refuse collection remains ingrained in my mind but much remained hidden from visitor eyes.”

John and Joy posted approximately 2000 leaflets in multiple postal boxes across South Africa and left the country without detection just over one and a half weeks later.

“You always left with the feeling that you don’t know if what you have done actually reached anybody,” says John. “You were constantly paranoid that if the post wasn’t perfect, it would be intercepted before it reached its destination.”

Speaking about trade unionism as a whole, John elaborates on the importance of the movement to maintain a collective vehicle for change. “At its best the trade union movement is an essential complement to the formal political structures,” says John. “The movement today tends to its members short term interests but provides links between wider struggles both national and international. In recent years trade union support for struggles in Africa and South America has been essential in keeping key issues in people’s minds.” When John speaks of his contribution to the South African liberation movement back in 1973 it falls simply under the banner of “routine left wing activity,” an extension of his political and moral sensibilities and “something you did and then got on with other things.”

In a world still dictated by prejudice and discrimination, the recruits’ stories offer a timely reminder that if there is something that you can do to stand steadfast with those struggling under oppression, no matter how distant their problems may seem from home, it is the right and just thing to do.

Charting a relatively unknown chapter in the South African liberation struggle, John’s story and that of other international volunteers is the subject of a new feature film called “London Recruits”. The filmmakers are working in coordination with the trade union movement and the project has been endorsed by Unison at a national level. Find out more about the film and how you can help the production funding appeal to help bring it to the big screen by visiting To keep up-to-date with the films release follow the Facebook and Twitter pages.

Watch Unison General Secretary Dave Prentis outline his support for London Recruits. Donate to the project here.